to the Study
Education is the industry that
produces manpower for the economy of nations. Therefore, education enhances
manpower development by improving the number and quality of human resource.
Bareday in Afonja (2003) says that
education is truly a mirror of the level of development and the aspiration of
Education in general and functional
literacy programmes in particular are means of advancing people in terms of
giving them knowledge, skills attitudes necessary for expanding their
Akinpelu (2002) is the view that
education programmes are organized for learners who have pre-occupation or jobs
other than studying. Further words education is associated with vocational
occupation or professional stills of development.
Functional literacy is one step
further from elementary literacy.
It refers to the ability to use the
stills of reading writing and computing in the acquisition of such information
as would make the individual function more actively and beneficially in the
economics, social, political psychological and cultural activities of the
community whether or she lives. Essentially, for any adults to participate in
any functional literacy programme there must be need for it. Need and
motivation are two important things that guide the adult participants in
functional literacy progrmmes. Literacy is seen as a tool for developing skill,
knowledge and attitudes for the daily survival of human persons. Therefore,
literacy is an educational process which aims at in calculating in the individuals
the ability to read and write and to carry out basic calculations.
Literacy could be seen as the ability
to function better in one’s social context. Thus, literacy is aimed at
enhancing one’s understanding of the society in which one is required to assume
a functional role.
UNESCO (2011) defined it as the
ability to identify. Understand, interpreted create, communicate, compute and
use printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy
involves a continue of learning by individuals to achieve their goals to
develop their knowledge and potential and to participate fully in their
community and wider society.
Oduaran (1991) defined functional
literacy as one step further up from elementary literacy. It refers aptly to
the ability to sue the skills of reading, writing and computing that would
benefit the individual.
Beder (1990) and Thompson (1992)
identified self improvement, family responsibilities, job participation,
advancement, urging by other people, social expectations and relationships,
escape from bore dome and stimulation and cognitive interest as a basic
Needs attract the attach adults to
take part in functional literacy programmes and
stability and security
(social affiliation love)
The above hierarchy of needs make us understand
why adult learners participate in functional literacy programs. For instance an
adult learner who lacks social and economic rewards tend to participate in
functional literacy programems so as to improve these needs he years to have
and for growth and development of self.
The tension and problems learners encounter in his
environment or working place will motivate him to learn more so as to find a
solution to the tension and problems. He participates in functional literacy
programmes so as to improve safety, security for himself, whether in his job or
The learning needs of adult learners vary
according to their social roe. Adults who newly arrive at working age will be
obsessed with learning how to make a living, a woman with young learning how to
make a living; a woman with young children will be interested in domestic
matters and in the children’s education. So also a member of a church choir
will be interested in learning music better.
The individual as an adult learner has a need that
is sometimes termed self-fulfillment or self actualization. Some adult learners
may wish to develop skills in their work which will enable them excel or in
other skills from which they may derive satisfaction and recognition such as in
sports or in domestic practice like sewing or cooking. Some may wish to enhance
their social standing cultivate new social relationships and feel the need for
learning how to achieve such needs.
There are some adult learners which may have last
on educational opportunities in the past may feel incomplete as persons unless
they fill what they see as gaps in their knowledge and education.
The behavior of adult learners is a given
environment is aimed at fulfilling basic want or needs which vary at a given
time. The need to improve on one’s job,
further knowledge or education, to improve social status, for socialization,
mental improvement psychological capability, political orientation, religious
improvement, awareness etc will motivate adult learners to participate in
functional literacy programmes. The adult learners to participate in functional
literacy programs. The adult learners can be a spouse, parents, works, young
adults etc. if these needs that motivate them to participate in functional
literacy programmes are met, they can be satisfied in the aspect of growth and
development for themselves and the society in which they live.
The attitude of the adult educator can also
motivate adult learners to enroll in functional literacy programmes.
Availability of the facilities in the environment
where it is located can also encourage earners to participate in literacy
programs. Because adult learners are motivated by what they see, how they are
treated thereby causing growth and development.
Statement of the Problem
There has been a rapid increase in the
participation of adult learners in functional literacy programmes in recent
years. This is evident in the high rate of adult learner’s enrolment in
functional literacy programmes in Benin metropolis taking advantage of centres
offering such programmes. Inspite of the various tasks which adult learners who
participate addles with, they still avail themselves with these learning and
activities or opportunities what then could be the motivating factors. To what
extent do these factors serve as determinants of adult learner’s participation
in functional literacy programmes?
The focus of this study is to
determine the factors which motivate adult learner’s participation in
functional literacy programmes in Benin metropolis.
1. What are adult learner’s objectives in
participating in functional literacy programmes?
2. To what extent does adult learner’s social
interaction or relationship influence their participation in functional
3. To what extent do adult learners psychological
characteristics serve as determinants of adult learner’s participation in
functional literacy programmes?
4. Do responsibility and personal life factors
motivate adult learner’s participation in functional literacy programmes?
5. To what extent do adult learners economic reasons
influence their participation in literacy programmes?
Purpose of Study
This study seeks to find out the
factors motivating adult learner’s participation in functional literacy
programmes in Benin metropolis. It is to seek the factors enhancing or
propelling adult learners to take part in functional literacy programmes.
Factors like physiological and basic
human factors or needs motivate the adult learners to take part. They take part
to seek improvement for what they feel is not fully actualized, until it is
fully actualized. The need will continue to bother the adult learners.
The study is to know these needs or
drives so that the adult educator can be well equipped and prepared on how to
teach the adult learners. Cope with them and any situation they might have and
to motivate and help them find solutions to those problems. Thereby bringing
about growth, change in behavior of the learners and the society to which they
The following assumptions were made in
1. If adults learners needs like physiological needs
are not met. It can greatly affect their participation in adult learning.
2. If adult educators who understand these needs of
adult learners are not available, it will greatly affect the learners.
3. If programmes designed are not fully exposed to
adult learners, they will greatly affect their participation.
4. If the learning environment is not harmonious and
peaceful, it will have negative effects on the adult learners.
5. The methodological issues if not carried out
properly. It can affect adult learner’s participation in functional literacy
Significance of the Study
The study’s findings is to help policy
makers both public and private institutions in providing appropriate functional
literacy programmes for adult learners to enable them keep a breast of social,
economic political, psychological and educational changes.
It is the adult educator’s missions in
helping adult learners learn what will gratify their needs at whatever level
they may be struggling. Therefore, if adults are hungry, they should be helped
to learn what will give them food, if they are well-fed, safe, loved and
esteemed, they must be helped to explore undeveloped capabilities and become
Therefore, the federal government of
Nigeria realizing that the only way to transform every area in the country into
an advance state and to eradicate literacy, empower citizens is to direct its
policy towards equal and adequate educational opportunities for all citizens by
creating literacy centres that will promote functional literacy programmes for
growth and development.
It is therefore very important to
determine the factors that motivate adult learners to participate in functional
Scope of Study
The study is limited to the
geographical area of Benin metropolis. It covers specifically adult learners of
some selected functional literacy centers who participate in functional
Definition of Terms
For the purpose of this study the key
concepts used are defined below!
1. Adult learners: Mature individuals who participate
in a learning situation that will bring about changes.
2. Education: A process of teaching, training and
learning made to improve on knowledge, behavior and to develop skills
3. Literacy: It is an instrument for acquiring relevant
knowledge and skills required for development, literacy is the ability to read
and understand a simple text, and to use and transmit written information of
everyday life. It is an activity
embedded in social and cultural practices.
4. Functional literacy: The ability to use the skills
of reading, writing computing in the acquisition of basic information for
development. Also, the use of adult education to acquire knowledge and skills
to meet individual’s needs and foster national development.
5. Motivation: It is the management function that
stimulates individuals to accomplish set down instructional or organization
goals. It is an intrinsic drive towards the fulfillment of personal needs and
the improvement of one’s perceived status, it is influenced strongly by
6. Literacy programmes: It refers to the programmes
designed to enhance the skills, and development. It is also a systematic
planned activities intended to equip and individual participants to become
skillful in the ability to read, write and compute to an appreciable level.