This research work is based on a
comparative analysis of consumer’s attitude towards different brands of
motor oil lubricant products. The major objective of this study is to
compare the attitude of consumers towards different brands of motor oil
lubricant product. To identify factors influencing consumer preference
of a particular brand of motor oil lubricant product. To compare
consumers attitude towards different brands of motor oil lubricant
product. To find out if price has any effect on the quality of such
product. To determine which of the brands is more available in the
market for the consumers to buy and be satisfied. Some issues were
addressed by the researcher and the instrument used by the researcher
for data collection was mainly questionnaire. The needed data collected
from respondent were tabulated into frequencies and percentage using
table and bar chart. And the two hypotheses were tested statistically at
0.05 level of significance. The first hypothesis sought to know if
there are any significant differences in the quality of the various
types of motor oil lubricant product; while the second hypothesis sought
to know if there is any significant relationship between price of the
product and its perceived quality. The work therefore, recommends that
the producers of motor oil lubricant should see marketing research as a
strategic investment which will help them to understand the dynamics in
the preference and the consumer buying behaviour.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
An oil lubricant has been a
canon product in our society today due to uses of different types of
moving objects like motor vehicles.
A lubricant “some times referred
to as lube” is a substance which is often a liquid introduced between
two moving surfaces to reduce the friction between them improving
efficiency and reducing wear. It may also have the function of
dissolving or transporting foreign particles and of distributing heat.
The ability of lubricants to lubricate moving parts and reduce friction
is what is called lubricity.
According to Chris-C- (2007) one
of the single largest applications for lubricants in the form of motor
oil is protecting the internal combustion engines, in motor vehicles and
powered equipment. He went further to state that typically lubricants
contain 90% base oil (most often petroleum fraction, called mineral
oils) and less than 10% additives. Vegetable oils or synthetic liquids
such as hydrogenated polyolefin, ester, silicon and many others are
sometimes used as base oils.
Motor Oil or engine oil is oil
used for lubrication of various internal combustion engines and the main
function is to lubricate moving parts, motor oil also cleans, inhibits
corrosion, improves sealing and cools the engine by carrying heat away
from moving parts.
Now, there has been increase in
competition in the oil lubricate market from department companies.
However, the application of marketing concept can drive the competition
better for any firm irrespective of the numbers of the competitions in
Stanton (1995:85) observes that
the marketing concept is a philosophy of business which believes that
the consumers’ want and need satisfaction is the economic and social
justification for a firm’s existence.
Therefore, all company
activities must be devoted to finding out what the consumer needs and
wants are, and then satisfying these wants, while still making a profit
in the long run Fulmer (1994:62).
Stanton (1995:86) contented,
that by serving a customer well, we are at the same time wanting the
consumer to satisfy his needs, and the consumer expects value and higher
than the quantity in the products he buys and uses, when a customer
fails to gain value from a product in one place, he will go and search
for it else where.
Stanton (1995:87) observes that
marketing concept is a marketing strategy accepted with the fact that a
consumer’s good judgment cannot be bought but can be freely given in
response to gifts of value from the products. The growth of competition
has stretched this concept to embrace the importance of adoption or
repeated purchases of the product brand and trade mark which determine
the success of other use of that product in the market.
This project work was carried
out in order to determine the consumers’ preference in oil lubricant
products whether Mobil, total, A-Z, A/P, Oando etc.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Many firms have introduced motor
oil lubricants product in the market. But despite effort made to
promote these lubricants products, some of them have not been
successful. And various promotional tools and efforts used advertising,
participation in trade fair, the use of hand bill promotion, personal
selling. But disappointingly, some of the consumer complained that the
lubricant product was not serving its purpose which means that some
brand of motor oil lubricant product are not performing well in the
market in comparison to others.
Though, it is one thing to
product a product and another to market it. The way customers react to
product “A” may differ from the way they react to product “B”. These
reactions may not be unconnected with the content of the product like
quality, pricing, promotional and distribution strategies employed by
However, the purpose of this
study is to find out what makes the difference in preference among the
users of motor oil lubricants products.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The major aim of this research
work is to compare the attitude of consumers towards different types of
motor oil lubricant products.
1) To identify factors influencing consumer preference for a particular brand of motor oil lubricant products.
2) To find out if prices has any influence in the consumer preference of any of the motor lubricant product.
3) To compare consumers attitude towards different brands of motor lubricant product.
4) To determine the degree of
acceptance of a particular brand of motor lubricant product in
comparison with other brands.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The critical appraisal seeks to give answers to the following questions.
1) What factors determine the consumer acceptance of a particular brand of motor oil lubricant product?
2) Do consumers consider the prices of different brands of oil lubricant product in their buying decision?
3) What is the level of customers’ acceptance of a particular brand of motor oil lubricant product?
4) What is the general consumer attitude towards different brand of motor oil lubricant?
1.5 FORMATION OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
In working to achieve the aim of
this study which is guided by the existing knowledge and observation of
the recent business trend during the time of this investigation, the
following hypotheses were tested by the researcher concerning the
consumer attitudes towards different brand of motor oil lubricant
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the quality of the various types of motor oil lubricant products.
Hi1: There are significant differences in the quality of the various types of motor oil lubricant products.
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between price of a product and its perceived quality.
Hi1: There is significant relationship between price of a product and its perceived quality.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers consumer
attitude towards different brands of motor oil lubricant products. It
was carried out in Enugu Urban using different types of motor oil
lubricant products namely
¨ Mobil motor oil lubricant
¨ Total motor oil lubricant
¨ A-Z motor oil lubricant
¨ A/P motor oil lubricant
¨ Oando motor oil lubricant
The survey was carried out on KEKE-NAPEP drivers and the Coal City Tax Drivers in Enugu Urban Area.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It cannot be disputed that the
significance of this study is for academic requirements. Specifically
this research is of immense benefit to:
¨ Motor Oil Lubricant Product Manufacturers: This
study is of immense importance to motor oil lubricant product
manufacturers because the study will reveal to them why their product is
not doing well in the market and they can take remedial action on how
to improve their product.
¨ Consumers: This
study will benefit the consumers because the researcher will identify
the reason why the consumers like a particular motor oil lubricant
product to another. If the producer knows the reasons, he will take the
appropriate steps to improving the product that can meet the acceptance
of the consumer.
¨ Government: This
study is of immense importance to the government because they are
promoting their countries products. It will help them to know what
should be done to product a better product to meet consumer need and the
international competitors in the market environment.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Like all human endeavours, the
study which has some limitations, associated with finance, time, and
data collection. Since as a student I have limited finance, which
constrained areas of the population.
The study was solely sponsored
by the researcher without any government assistance as such, money was
required for stationary, photocopying, typing, and cyclostyling of
questionnaire and other writing materials and transportation.
A study of this nature requires a
lot of time for sourcing of materials for the study. This research work
was carried out along side with academic course work like term papers
writing in partial fulfillments of the relevant courses.
A study of this nature requires
enormous data on which to draw generalization upon; the researcher found
it difficult in sourcing for the material required for the study.
To this end therefore, the
researcher is going to limit the data collection have in Enugu State
knowing fully well that any data collected in the Enugu Urban will be a
good representation of Enugu State.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
For proper understanding of this study some operational terms which were constantly used in this work were detailed.
These are individuals who
purchase or have the capacity to purchase different brand of motor oil
lubricant product offered for sale in the market in order to satisfy
personal or household needs, wants or desires.
It is a name, term, sign,
symbol, or design, or a combination of these intended to identify the
goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate
them from those of competitors.
This is anything that can be
offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that
might satisfy a want or need.
This is defined in terms of all
the attributes desired in a product. The Attributes include such things
as durability availability, fittings, design and attractiveness. The
compositions of these attributes are classified into high, medium and
This means the favouring of a brand of product to others.
Chris C. (2007): Implementing Phytoremedistion of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Methods in Biotechnology, www.lubricantoil.com.
Fulmer P. (1994): Behaviour Aspect of Marketing London: Heinemann.
Stanton, W.J. (1995): Fundamentals of Marketing, Hills, Logakusha.