Background of the Study
Halitosis or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odor exhaled in breathing (Gage, 2007).
Halitosis can be important social problem in which the standard
dental treatment and mouth wash that are often recommended provide only
temporary relief. The smell is from an oral source due to bacterial
activities (Rosemberg, 2002).
Oral malodor is primarily the result of microbial metabolism, the
mouth is a home of hundreds of bacterial species with various
nutritional preferences. The most common location for mouth related
halitosis is the tongue. Tongue bacterial produce malordor and fatty
acid and count for about 80 to 90 percent of all cases of mouth related
bad breath. Large quantities of naturally occurring bacteria are often
found on the dorsum of the tongue, where they are relatively undisturbed
by normal activities. This part of the tongue is relatively dry and
poorly cleansed and bacterial populations can thrive on remnants of food
deposits, dead epithelial cells and post nasal drip. The convoluted
microbial structure of the tongue dorsum provides an ideal habitat for
anaerobic bacterial, which flourish under a continually – forming tongue
coating of food debris, dead cells, post nasal drip and overlying
bacteria living and dead when left on the tongue the anaerobic
respiration of such bacterial can yield either the putrescent smell of
indole, skatole, methyl mercapton, alloymethyl sulfide and dimethyl
sulfide (Tonzentich, 1997).
The organism digest protein, and several fatid substance arise
leading to bad breath. Oral malodor from the overgrowth of proteolytic,
anerobic gram negative bacterial the creavices of the tongue dorsum can
be successfully diagnosed and treated (Lochner et al, 2000).
There are several causes of halitosis although the main one is oral
bacterial over 90 million people suffer from chronic halitosis which is
medical term for bad breath in most cases halitosis originate from the
gums and tongue, caused by bacterial from the decay of food particles,
other debris in the mouth and poor oral hygiene. In most cases (85-90%)
bad breath originate in the mouth itself.
The intensity of bad breath differ during the day, due to eating of
certain foods such as garlic, onions, meat, fish, egg, cheese, smoking
and alcohol consumption, since the mouth is exposed to less oxygen and
is in active during the night, the odor is usually worse upon awakening
(morning breath). Bad breath may be transient of ten disappearing
following brushing teeth, flushing or rinsing with special mouth wash
(Tammy Devenport, 2007).
Bad breath may also be persistent (chronic bad breath). Which is a
more serious condition affecting some 25 percent of the population in
varying degrees. It can negatively affect the individual’s personal,
social and business relationship leading to poor self esteem and
increased stress. Halitosis is a medical term for bad breath and this is
quite serious as a social disorder. Halitosis can cause extremely
embarrassing situation in social interaction and relationship at work
and in your personal life as well (Lell et al, 2006).
However, some bad breath seem to be associated with local
pathological causes such as gingivitis (especially ANUG), periodontal
disease, infected extraction sockets, or other types of oral species. In
some cases, other possibilities that favour oral malodor are the
presence of residual blood post operatively, debris under bridge or
appliances, ulcer, dry mouth, and perfection of post nasal mucus drip
stagnating on the tongue (Wd Kazor, 2002).
Various methods used to control halitosis (bad breath) the most
widely-known reason to clean the tongue is for the control of bad
breath. Method used against bad breath, such as mints, mouth sprays and
mouth wash, may only temporarily mask the odour created by the bacteria
on the tongue but cannot cure bad breath because they don’t remove the
source of bad breath, in order to prevent the production of the sulfur –
containing compounds mention above the bacteria on the tongue must be
removed regularly. Most people who clean their tongue use a (tongue
scraper) or a tooth brush (Dent Hes, 2007).
Statement of the Problems
Eating of certain foods, like cooked eggs, garlic, onion which when
absorbed into our blood stream, are transferred to the lungs and exhaled
breath will be produced as bad breath.
Suffering from some systemic diseases such as liver and kidney,
diabetic mellitus, digestive track infection whereby gases are blocked
from passing the stomach or intestines.
When mouth is dry, saliva production decreases leaving the mouth
natural ability to clean itself impaired. Saliva is mouth’s natural
mouth wash which contain properties that keep the mouth clean.
Purpose of the Study
1) To identify the occurrence of Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi.
2) To find out the causes of Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi.
3) To determine the measures of awareness, prevention and treatment of Halitosis.
4) To create hope that there is a solution to the problems of Halitosis.
Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is to find out the occurrence of halitosis among the students in SICHST, Makarfi.
This will help to proffer suggestion in understanding the existing
oral health problems and develop oral health programs in the College,
and assist oral health practitioners to provide a special oral health
services such as oral health talk to entire students in SICHST Makarfi,
and also help the management of the College to introduce oral health
care in every department.
1) How common is Halitosis among students in SICHST Markafi?
2) What are the predisposing factors that lead to Halitosis?
3) What are the measures of awareness, prevention and treatment of Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi?
Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is limited to Halitosis among students in
SICHST Makarfi which consist of causes, prevention and treatment.