DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERISED BIOLOGICAL VERIFICATION SYSTEM FOR CRIME CONTROL

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Personal identification is ever present in our daily lives. For example we often have to prove our identity for getting access to bank accounts, entering a protected site, withdrawing cashing from an ATM machine, logging into a computer, and so on. Conventionally, we identity ourselves and gain access by physically carrying passports, keys, access cards or by remembering passwords, secret codes, and Personal Identification numbers (PINs).

Unfortunately, passport, keys, access cards can be lost, duplicated, stolen, or forgotten; and password, secret codes and Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) can easily be forgotten, compromised, shared or observed. Such deficiencies of conventional personal identification techniques have caused major problems to all concerned. For example, hackers often disrupt computer networks, credit card fraud is estimated at billions dollars per year worldwide. Therefore, robust, reliable and foolproof personal identification solutions must be sought in order to address the deficiencies of the conventional techniques, something that could verify that someone is physically the person he/she claims to be. A biological verification system is a unique, measurable characteristic or trait of a human being for automatically recognized or verifying identity. By using a biological identification, the individual verification can be done by doing the statistical analysis of biological characteristic. This measurable characteristic can be physical, e.g. eye, face, finger image and hand, or behavioural, e.g. signature and typing rhythm. Besides bolstering security, the systems also enhance user convenience by alleviating the need to design and remember multiple complex passwords.

In spite of the fact that automatic recognition systems based on fingerprints have been used by law enforcement agencies worldwide for over 40years, biological recognition continues to remain a very difficult pattern of recognition problem. Therefore, a proper system design is needed to verify a person quickly and automatically (Uludag et al 2004).

In this project, a biological system is proposed for human verification i.e. authenticating the identity of an individual. The software uses human features for verification process.  

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Biological verification system authorizes humans. It covers issues such as how users are given an identity, the protection of that identity and the technologies supporting that protection, the term identity is a more abstract concept that will always be difficult to define in way that satisfies everyone. It is a concept that is fluid and contextual depending on a number of factors including culture. Thus the term management is appended to “identity” to indicate that there is technological and best practice framework around a somewhat intractable philosophical concept. Digital identity can be interpreted as the codification of identity names and attributes of a physical instance in a way that facilitates processing. In each organization there is normally a role or department that is responsible for managing the scheme of digital identities of their staff and their own objects. These represented by object identities or object identifiers.

Historically, fingerprints have been used as the most authoritative method of authentication, but recent court cases in the US and elsewhere have raised fundamental doubt about fingerprint reliability. Outside of the legal system as well, fingerprint have been shown to be easily spoof able, with British Telecom’s top computer-security official noting that “few” fingerprint readers have not already been tricked by one spoof or another Hybrid or two-tired authentication methods offers a compelling solution, such as private keys encrypted by fingerprint inside of a USB device. In a computer data context, cryptographic methods have been developed which are currently not spoof able if and only if the originator’s key has not been compromised. That the originator (or anyone other than an attacker) knows (or doesn’t know) about a compromise is irrelevant. It is not known whether these cryptographically based authentication methods are provably secure since unanticipated mathematical development may make them vulnerable to attack in future. If that were to occur, it may call into question much of the authentication in the past. In particular, a digitally signed contract may be questioned when a new attack and the cryptography underlying the signature is discovered.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The recent increase in information security, problems generated as a result of the inability of the manual system of information security to disseminate information effectively and solution is offered in other to improve the present situation of information system through the use of security.

However, the problems of existing (present) system are that it has the inability to disseminate between authorized and unauthorized customer. Due to the above problems security men find it difficult to known who is who, thereby causing insecurity even in the presence of security. The above point is the problem of security.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

INTERVIEW METHOD: -   During the interview conducted in the Department Economic and Financial Crime Control Commission (EFCC).  The research interviewed the Head of the Division in Abuja of how Identification and Biological verification is being carried out by the paramilitary organization EFCC.

B)        REFERENCES TO WRITTEN DOCUMENT:-      Inspite of the interview took place in the Department Economic and Financial Crime Control Commission (EFCC), the researcher extended her collection of data to the written document as a result of inadequacy from the responsiveness of the interview.  The researcher had to visit Ambrose Alli University Library for more information and references from already written text on Biological Verification System varying more emphasis on Crimes control system.  The information from this specified method made the successful completion of this study possible.

AIMS OF THE STUDY

With the increasing anxiety regarding human factors in system development, the concepts of humanized technology and human-related system have become the focus of more and more research. Biological verification system has the potential to deliver widespread automatic identification of individual by measuring particular characteristics. However, when considering whether a system could add significant benefit over alternative financial factors would need to e examined.

  • For privacy and confidentiality
  • For integrity, assuring that data are not modified without proper authority
  • Consistency, ensuring that the data and behavior we see today will be the same tomorrow
  • Controlling access to resources.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Biological verification system comprise of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In computer science, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are not related to the shape of the study. Examples include, but are not limited to complexion, face recognition, genotype, height, hand geometry, blood group, names etc.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

To maximize the benefit of technology to intelligence operations, a large amount of information, on a large number of people, collected over a long period of time would be needed. These raise civil liberties issues.To address these, clear criteria defining whose data can be collected, for what purpose, how long it can be retained and who has access to it, need to be followed. The importance of this system’ is to:

  • Access information by only authorized customer
  • Maintainability:  the proposed software meeting changing needs of crime
  • Dependability: the proposed software is trustworthy
  • Efficiency: the software does not waste time and human resource
  • Usability: the software is usable by the users (customer) for which it was designed

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Many factors act as limitation of the study; such factors include the time limit given for the work to be completed, high cost of transportation during the time research and also inadequate text book on the course of the study.

  1.  DEFINITION OF TERMS
    • a risk is a possible event which could cause a loss.
    • a threat is a method of triggering a risk event that is dangerous.

VULNERABILITY: a weakness in a target that can potentially be exploited by a threat.

  • a vulnerability that has been triggered by a threat – a risk of 1.0 (100%).
  • a countermeasure is a way to stop a threat from triggering a risk event.

DEFENSE IN DEPTH: never rely on one single security measure alone

  • assurance I the level of guarantee that a security system will behave as expected.

SECURITY: security is the condition of being protected against or loss.


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