1.0 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
Phosphorus is usually present in natural water as phosphate and is
an essential element of life, phosphate can come from fertilizers,
human or animal wastes, soaps or detergents and industrial waste.
When too much phosphorus becomes available, plant grows rapidly.
Phosphate that enter a stream may cause algae to multiply and grow
quickly, this may result in an algae bloom. Algae bloom are thick
layers of green slime that cover the surface of ponds or slow moving
stream, algae bloom are harmful to most aquatic organisms. They
cause a decrease in the dissolved oxygen level of the water, by
preventing waves and surface of the water from coming into contact
with the air which provides the main source of oxygen for the water.
Their dark colour absorbs more heat energy from sunlight causing the
water temperature to rise. Plants which grow fast, die fast and sink
to the bottom, of the water body; are decomposed by bacteria
increasing the biological oxygen demand (BOD). All these factors
combined to cause oxygen level in the water to decrease rapidly. This
can result in fish kill and the death of many aquatic organism.
AIMS OF STUDY
Ihiala local government and Uli town could be said to be a lowland
area and a non-industrialized area, but the establishment of the
Anambra State University has brought about rapid development as well as
As a result, it has been suspected that there are certain
activities that may bring pollution in the source of water in Ihiala
and Uli town e.g. phosphate pollution. However, it becomes imperative
and important to assess these major sources of water pollution by
phosphate (Atamiri river) in anambra State and to know the level of
their pollution either they are good for the domestic purpose or not,
and how they could be subjected to the treatment so as to avert the
various adverse health implications.
It is very important to analyse solvent water because it contain a
large number of phosphate or pollutant which are necessary to be
checked before the water is used for any sperciic purpose.
Water is a major chemical component of the earths surface. It is the only liquid that most organism ever encounter.
We alternately take it for granted because of its ubiquity and
blend nature or marvel at its unusual and fascinating properties. At
the centre of this fascination is the role of water as the medium of
life (Garret and Gresham and Gresham 1999) over 90% of the weight of
any cell is composed of water and all the metabolic processes or
reactions associated are based on it (Nester et. al., 1998)
over 90% of the weight of any cell is composed of water and all the
metabolic processes or reaction associated are based on it (Nester et. al., 1998).
Water is containing hydrogen, oxygen with a variety of dissolved
and suspended substance. Water must therefore be analysed and assessed
to determine its physiological and technological acceptability for
1.1 WATER POLLUTION
Water pollution is any
chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has
a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses it. When
humans drink polluted water, it often has serious effects on their
health. Water pollution can also make water unsuitable for the desired
Phosphates are major source of
pollution in lakes, stream and high phosphate level support
over-production of algae and water weeds. However many of us have
misconception regarding source of polluting phosphate and many home
owners unknowingly contribute to the problem lawn and garden
fertilizers often are implicated as the major source of phosphate
pollution. However when phosphate are applied to soil, they quickly
bind to soil particles. Soil bound phosphate contribute to pollution
only when soil erosion occurs.
1.2 SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
Water pollution is usually
caused by human activities, different human sources add to the pollution
of water. There are two major of sources.
- Point sources are sources that discharge pollutants at
specific locations through pipeline or sewers into the surface water
example factories, sewage treatment plants, underground mines, oil
wells, oil tankers and agriculture.
- Non point sources are sources that can not be traced to a
single site of discharge example acid deposition from the air, traffic
pollutant that are spread through rivers and pollutant that enter the
water through ground water. Non point pollution is hard to control
because the perpetrators can not be traced.
1.3 EFFECTs OF PHOSPHATE ON WATER
Phosphate plays an important
role in cell activities. It has been shown that phosphate regulates
water transport and glucose metabolism. An increase in phosphate
concentration is capable of causing a rise in oxidative metabolism in
water body. Phosphate is an important ingredient in many soaps and
detergent due to its powerful cleaning activities.
Phosphate emits a bad odour, it makes swimming difficult and more complicated water for drinking.
Phosphate ion in water can definitely cause serious health problem
in infant under 6 months of age when phosphate water is used to mix
infant formula. The excess phosphate can interfere with the ability
of the protein (hemoglobin) to carry oxygen in babies’ blood. This
can cause babies to suffocate even though their lungs are receiving
USES OF PHOSPHATE
- Use as NPK fertilizer
- Used as binder
- Used as indicator of pollution
- Used as bloom, etc
- Phosphate enter stream may cause algae to multiply and grow quickly. This may result in an algae bloom
- Algae bloom are thick layers of green slime that cover the surface of pond or slow moving stream.
- Algae bloom are harmful to most aquatic organism.
- They cause a decrease in the dissolved oxygen level of the water
- They prevent waves and the surface of the water from coming
into contact with air which provides the main source of oxygen for the
- Total phosphate is used as an indicator of pollution from run-off in agricultural areas or domestic sewage.