ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE PROFILE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM APPARENTLY HEALTHY DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA (OYO STATE)

Project Category:
Type: Project Materials| Format: Ms Word| Attribute: Documentation Only| Pages: 108 Pages| Chapters: 1-5 chapters| Price: ₦ 3,000.00

Download Chapter One

Download this Project material



Share this post on:




ABSTRACT

 

This study was conducted to determine the antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolate from apparently healthy domestic livestock viz: cow, goats and chicken from Oyo State Nigeria. E. coli was isolated using Eosin Methylene Blue Agar (EMB) and identified by conventional microbiological technique. The isolate were tested against 14 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. A total of 42 different antibiotics resistance profile were observed with each isolate showing resistance to at least four or more drugs tested. Generally, the E. coli isolates showed resistance rates of 93.8% to Ampicilin; 15.3% to Chloramphenicol, 52.7% to cloxacillin, 74.3% Erythromycin, 20.9% to Gentamicin, 53.8% to Penicillin, 17.7% to Streptomycin, 67.3% to Tetracyclin, 21.1% to Ceftazidine 70.7% to Cefuroxine, 20.5% to Cefixine, 28.8% to Ofloxacine, 58.6% to Augmentin, 27.2% to Nitorfurantion 27.3% to Ciprofloxacin. Statistical analysis showed that average number of resistance phenotypes per isolate was significantly higher for cow compared with poultry. A significant public health concern observed in this study is that multi drug resistant: commensal E. coli strains may constitute a potential reservoir of resistance genes that could be transferred to pathogenic bacteria.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
The usage of antibiotics is the most essential factors that promotes the emergence, selction and dissemination of antibiotic- resistance microorganisms in both veterinary and human medicine (Daniles et al, 2009). This acquired resistance not only in pathogenic bacteria but also in the endogenous flora of exposed individuals (animals and humans).
Also, intensively reared food animals, antibiotic may be administered to whole flocks rather than individual animals, and antimicrobial agent may be continuously fed to food animals. Such as poultry, goats and cattle as growth promoters.
Furthermore, the antibiotic selection pressure for bacteria drug resistance in animal is high and invariably their feacal flora contains a relatively high proportion of resistant bacteria (Whitworth et al, 2008, Literak et al, 2010).
The mechanisms for spreading antibiotic resistance from animal to human and vice versa remains controversial. Coli from chicken has been shown in human volunteers and there is historical evidence that animals are a reservoir for Escherichia coli found in humans (Akwar et al, 2008).
Fang et al, 2008 reported that the spread of antibiotic resistance plasmids in E. coli from chickens to human handles or of antibiotic microorganisms from animal to humans in various countries has been reported.
Resistance has been found in organisms common to both humans and animals such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Enterococcs among others (Davis et al, 2009). Due to the intricate balance of micro flora of different habitats within the ecosystem, the transfer of the resistance genes among bacteria occupying different habitats has the potential to occur frequently. (Call et al., 2008)
Escherichia coli is a gram negative, rod shape bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of poikilothermic (warmblooded) organisms (endolherms).
Most Escherichia coli strains are harmless, but some serotype can cause serious food poisoning in humans and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination (Migular et al., 2007).
Also the harmless strains are part of the normal floral of the gut and can benefit their host [by producing vitamin k2 and by preventing the establishment of the pathogenic bacteria within the intestine (Michael et al., 2002)
Escherichia coli and related bacteria composed of about 0.1% of the gut flora and fecal oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the bacterium cause diseases (Okoli et al., 2005).
Cells are able to survive outside the body for a limited amount of time which makes them ideal indicator organisms to test environmental sample for fecal contamination.
However, a growing body of research that has examined environmentally persistence of Escherichia coli which can survive fro extended period of time outside the host (Lee et al., 1996)
Furthermore, the bacterium can also be grown easily and in expensively in a laboratory setting and has been inextensively investigated fro over 60 years. Escherichia coli is the most widely studied and an important species in the field of biotechnology and microbiology as well, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA (Davis et al., 2008).
Conclusively, this was done to ascertain the significant of antibiotics resistance usage in microorganism and human medicines and also to know the mechanisms for spreading antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli in animals and vice versa which remain controversial.


Get Complete Project


About

All Project Materials Inc. is a web based company in assisting and guiding Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, project works, research guides and project materials. With our vast data base, students can have access to numerous term papers, Seminar papers, essays and contemporary project topics and materials in each department of their various institutions. Complete Abstract, table of content and chapter 1 is given for FREE on this site for students.

How we Work:
  • Simply browse through our research project library, view our free chapter 1 or table of content or abstract.
  • Place an order to request for complete research material, kindly provide all necessary contact details to enable us reach out to you if need be.
  • Once payment is confirmed, a download code will be sent to you. Which you will have access to download the project materials.
Blog
GETTING YOUR RESEARCH TOPIC APPROVED BY THE SUPERVISOR

If you do know how to write a project topic. Go online visit https://www.allprojectmaterials.com. Check your department and see the list of topics, then that will guide you to write a project topic. LIST the project topic in the full scarp paper. By standard it i...

WRITING A GOOD RESEARCH PROJECT

Researchers found it difficult in writing a good research. They do not have much information for all the chapters. Thus, their academic work was not approved by their supervisor for defense. It pains the student to write again and again until they finally resolve...

Contact

Student researchers and independent researchers willing to visit our research library and get access to over 25,000+ research projects and journals in hard copies can contact us directly by visiting:

Website:
https://www.researchcub.info

Address:
No. 23 Ikot Ekpene Road, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.

Phone:
+234 70 6329 8784

Email Address:
For enquries: [email protected]

Whatsapp:
+234 70 6329 8784



Copyright © researchcub.info | Terms of Use| Disclaimer| Privacy Policy

Complete Research Project topics and materials
Our Happy Researchers...